Assistant Professor
Group Website:
Vision Statement:

I believe there is little more interesting or challenging to study than the underlying biology that produces the mind. In addition to understanding the physiology of the brain, my research focuses on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration such as found in Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Working out what first goes wrong in these disease processes offers hope for treatments which will prevent the onset and progression of neurodegeneration. As modern medical and healthcare advances produce an increasingly aged global population, preserving brain health and quality of life is of great importance.

Research Interests:

Neurophysiology, neurodegeneration, neurogenetics, transgenic mouse models, learning and memory

Ph.D. The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK
B.S. honors first class The University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK
Recent Publications:
  1. Gladding CM, Sepers M, Xu J, Zhang LY, Milnerwood A, Lambroso P, Raymond LA. Calpain and Striatal-Enriched  Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) Activation Contribute to Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptor Localization in a Huntington’s Disease Mouse Model. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Jun 23.
  2. Kaufman AM, Milnerwood A.J, Sepers M, Coquinco A, She K, Wang L, Lee H, Craig AM, Cynader M, Raymond LA. Opposing roles of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptor signaling in striatal and cortical neurons. J. Neurosci. 2012 32(12):3992-4003.
  3. Milnerwood A.J, Kaufman A.M, Sepers M, Gladding CM, Fan J, Coquinco A., Zhang LY, Wang L, Qoi J, Lee H, Cynader M, Raymond L.A. Mitigation of augmented extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling and apoptosis in cortico-striatal co-cultures from Huntington’s disease mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2012 Jun 2;48(1):40-51.
  4. Fan J, Gladding CM, Wang L, Zhang L, Kaufman AM, Milnerwood AJ, Raymond LA. P38 MAPK is involved in enhanced NMDA receptor-dependent excitotoxicity in YAC transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2012 45(3):999-1009.
  5. Petkau TL, Neal SJ, Milnerwood AJ, Mew A, Hill AM, Orban P, Gregg J, Lu H, Feldman HH, Mackenzie IRA, Raymond LA, Leavitt BR. Synaptic dysfunction in progranulin – deficient mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2012 45(2):711-22.
  6. Raymond LA, Andre VM, Cepeda C, Gladding CM, Milnerwood AJ, Levine M. Pathophysiology of Huntington’s Disease: Time-Dependent Alterations in Synaptic and Receptor Function. Neuroscience 2011 198:252-73.
  7. Chartier-Harlin M-C, Dachsel JC, Vilariño-Güell C, Lincoln SJ, Leprêtre F, Hulihan MM, Kachergus J, Milnerwood AJ, Tapia L, Song MS, Le Rhun E, Mutez E, Larvor L., Duflot A., Vanbesien-Mailliot C, Kreisler A, Ross OA, Nishioka K, Soto-Ortolaza AI, Cobb SA, Melrose HA, Behrouz B, Keeling BH, Bacon JA, Hentati E, Williams L, Yanagiya A, Sonenberg N, Lockhart PJ, Zubair AC, Uitti RJ, Aasly JO, Krygowska-Wajs A, Opala G, Wszolek ZK, Frigerio R, Maraganore DM, Gosal D, Lynch T, Hutchinson M, Bentivog Translation initiator EIF4G1 mutations in familial Parkinson’s disease. Am J. Hum Gen. 2011 89:398-406.
  8. Tapia L, Milnerwood A J, Guo A, Mills F, Yoshida  E, Vasuta OC, Mackenzie I, Raymond LA, Cynader M, Jia W, Bamji SX. PGRN Deficiency Decreases Neural Connectivity But Enhances Synaptic Transmission at Individual Synapses. J. Neurosci 201131(31):11126-32.
  9. Singaraja RR, Huang K, Sanders SS, Milnerwood AJ, Hines R, Lerch JP, Franciosi S, Drisdel RC, Vaid K, Young FB, Doty C, Wan J, Bissada N, Henkelman RM, Green WN, Davis NG, Raymond LA, Hayden MR. Altered palmitoylation and neuropathological deficits in mice lacking HIP14. Hum. Mol. Gen. 2011 20(20):3899-909.
  10. Dallérac GM, Vatsavayai SC, Cummings DM, Milnerwood AJ, Hirst MC, Murphy KP. Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Huntington’s Disease Mouse Models is Reversed by Dopamine Receptor Activation. Neurodegener Dis. 2011 8(4):230-9. PMID: 21282937.