Stephen Lam

Group Website


Vision Statement


Stephen Lam








Research Interests

  • Evaluation of chemopreventive agents including the use of herbal compounds to prevent lung cancer
  • Development and validation of surrogate end-point biomarkers for Phase II chemoprevention clinical trials of new chemopreventive agents
  • Development of novel, endoscopic optical imaging methods such as Raman spectroscopy and confocal microendoscopy to probe the cellular and chemical structure of bronchial tissues
  • Identify novel molecular targets for prevention & treatment of lung cancer

Research Summary

Research Highlights


Education and Affiliations


MD University of Toronto,


Publications and Awards

Recent Publications

  • Ohtani K, Lee A, Lam S.  Frontiers in bronchoscopic imaging.  Respirology. 2012 Feb;17(2):261-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2011.02108.x.
  • Tammemagi M, Lam S, McWilliams A, Sin D.  Incremental value of pulmonary function and sputum DNA image cytometry in lung cancer risk prediction.  Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Apr;4(4):552-61. Epub 2011 Mar 16.
  • Enfield K, Stewart G, Pikor L, Alvarez C, Lam S, Lam W, Chari R.  MicroRNA gene dosage alterations and drug response in lung cancer.  J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;474632. Epub 2011 Mar 31.
  • Gibb E, Vucic E, Enfield K, Stewart G, Lonergan K, Kennett J, Becker-Santos D, MacAulay C, Lam S, Brown C, Lam W.  Human cancer long non-coding RNA transcriptomes.  PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25915. Epub 2011 Oct 3.
  • Lam S, Boyle P, Healey G, Maddison P, Peek L, Murray A, Chapman C, Allen J, Wood W, Sewell H, Robertson J.  Early CDT-Lung: an immunobiomarker test as an aid to early detection of lung cancer.  Cancer Prev Res (Phila).  2011 Jul;4(7):1126-34.
  • Martinez V, Becker-Santos D, Vucic E, Lam S, Lam W.  Induction of human squamous cell-type carcinomas by arsenic.  J Skin Cancer. 2011;454157. Epub 2011 Dec 6.
  • Short M, Lam S, McWilliams A, Ionescu D, Zeng H.  Using laser Raman spectroscopy to reduce false positives of autofluorescence bronchoscopies: a pilot study.  J Thorac Oncol. 2011 Jul;6(7):1206-14.
  • Starczynowski D, Lockwood W, Deléhouzée S, Chari R, Wegrzyn J, Fuller M, Tsao M, Lam S, Gazdar A, Lam W, Karsan A.  TRAF6 is an amplified oncogene bridging the RAS and NF-kB pathways in human lung cancer.  J Clin Invest. 2011 Oct 3;121(10):4095-105. doi: 10.1172/JCI58818. Epub 2011 Sep 12.
  • Thu K, Pikor L, Chari R, Wilson I, MacAulay C, English J, Tsao M, Gazdar A, Lam S, Lam W, Lockwood W.  Genetic disruption of KEAP1/CUL3 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex components is a key mechanism of NF-kappaB pathway activation in lung cancer.  J Thorac Oncol. 2011 Sep;6(9):1521-9.
  • McDonough J, Yuan R, Suzuki M, Seyednejad N, Elliott W, Sanchez P, Wright A, Gefter W, Litzky L, Coxson H, Paré P, Sin D, Pierce R, Woods J, McWilliams A, Mayo J, Lam S, Cooper J, Hogg J.  N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 27;365(17):1567-75.
  • Lonergan K, Chari R, Coe B, Wilson I, Tsao M, Ng R, Lam S, Lam W.  Transcriptome profile of carcinoma-in-situ and locally invasive non-small cell lung cancer a revealed by SAGE.  PLoS One.  2010 Feb 11;5(2):e9162.
  • Ahn MI, Gleeson TG, Chan IH, McWilliams AM, Macdonald SL, Lam S, Atkar-Khattra S. Mayo JR. Perifissural nodules seen at CT screening for lung cancer. Radiology. 2010 Mar;254(3):949-56.
  • Chari R, Thu KL, Wilson IM, Lockwood WW, Lonergan KM, Coe BP, Malloff CA, Gazdar AF, Lam S, Garnis C, MacAulay CE, Alvarez CE, Lam WL. Integrating the multiple dimensions of genomic and epigenomic landscapes of cancer. Cancer and Metastasis Rev. 2010 Mar;29(1):73-93.  Review.
  • Dong X, Guan J, English JC, Flint J, Yee J, Evans K, Murray N, MacAulay C, Ng RT, Gout PW, Lam WL, Laskin J, Ling V, Lam S, Wang YZ. Patient-derived first generation xenografts of non-small cell lung cancers: Promising tools for predicting drug responses for personalized chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 1;16(5):1442-51. Epub 2010 Feb 23.
  • Ishizumi T, McWilliams A, MacAulay Gazdar AF, Lam S. Natural history of bronchial preinvasive lesions. Cancer and Metastasis Rev. 2010 Mar;29(1):5-14.  Review.
  • Gustafson AM, Soldi R, Anderlind C, Scholand MB, Qian J, Zhang X, Cooper K, Walker D, McWilliams A, Liu G, Szabo E, Brody J, Massion PP, Lenburg ME, Lam S, Bild AH, Spira A.  Airway P13K pathway activation is an early and reversible event in lung cancer development.  Sci Transl Med. 2010 Apr 7;2(26):26ra25.
  • Lockwood WW, Chari R, Coe BP, Thu KL, Garnis C, Malloff CA, Campbell J, Williams AC, Hwang D, Zhu CQ, Buys TP, Yee J, English JC, Macaulay C, Tsao MS, Gazdar AF, Minna JD, Lam S, Lam WL.  Integrative genomic analyses identify BRF2 as a novel lineage-specific oncogene in lung squamous cell carcinoma.  PLoS Med. 2010 Jul 27;7(7):e1000315.
  • Chari R, Lonergan KM, Pikor LA, Coe BP, Zhu CQ, Chan TH, MacAulay CE, Tsao MS, Lam S, Ng RT, Lam WL.  A sequence-based approach to identify reference genes for gene expression analysis.  BMC Med Genomics. 2010 aug 3;3:32.
  • Tkacova R, McWilliams A, Lam S, Sin D.  Integrating lung and plasma expression of pneumo-proteins in developing biomarkers in COPD:  a case study of surfactant protein D.  Med Sci Monit. 2010 Nov;16(11):CR540-4.
  • Gibb E, Enfield K, Tsui I, Chari R, Lam S, Alvarez C, Lam W.  Deciphering squamous cell carcinoma using multidimensional genomic approaches.  J Skin Cancer.  2011;2011:541405. Epub 2010 Dec 27.
  • Coxson H, Lam S.  Quantitative assessment of the airway wall using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography.  Proc Am Thorac Soc.  2009 Aug 15;6(5):439-43.
  • Coxson H, Mayo J, Lam S, Santyr G, Parraga G, Sin D.  New and current clinical imaging techniques to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Oct 1;180(7):588-97. [Epub 2009 July 16].
  • Edell E, Lam S, Pass H, et al.  Detection and localization of intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma using fluorescence-reflectance bronchoscopy: an international, multicenter clinical trial.  J Thorac Oncol.  2009 Jan;4(1):49-54.
  • Guan J, Lo M, Dockery P, Lam S et al.  The x (c) (-) cystine/glutamate antiporter as a potential therapeutic target for small-cell lung cancer; use of sulfasalazine.  Cancer Chemother Pharmacol.  2009 Aug;64(3):463-72. Epub 2008 Dec 24.
  • Han W, Gills J, Memmott R, Lam S, Dennis P.  The chemopreventive agent myoinositol inhibits Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in bronchial lesions from heavy smokers.  Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa).  2009 Apr;2(4):370-6. Epub 2009 Mar 31.
  • Lane P, Lam S, McWilliams A, Leriche J, Anderson M, Macaulay C.  Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium.  J Biomed Opt. 2009 Mar-Apr;14(2):024008.
  • Lee P, van den Berg R, Lam S, et al.  Color fluorescence ratio for detection of bronchial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ.  Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jul 15;15(14):4700-5.  Epub 2009 Jul 7.
  • Massion P, Zou Y, Uner H, Kiatsimkul P, Wolf HJ, Baron AE, Byers T, Jonsson S, Lam S, Hirsch FR, Miller YE, Franklin WA, Varella-Garcia M  Recurrent genomic gains in preinvasive lesions as a biomarker of risk for lung cancer.  PLoS One. 2009 Jun 9;4(6):e5611.
  • Mayo J, Clifton J, Powell T, McWilliams A, Lam S et al.  Lung nodules: CT-guided placement of microcoils to direct video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical resection.  Radiology. 2009 Feb;250(2):576-85.
  • Sheel A, Guenette J, Yuan R, Holy L, Mayo J, McWilliams A, Lam S, Coxson H.  Evidence for dysanapsis using computed tomographic imaging of the airways in older ex-smokers.  J Appl Physiol. 2009 Nov;107(5):1622-8. Epub 2009 Sep 17.
  • Soh J, Okumuro N, Lockwood W, Yamamoto H, Shigematsu H, Zhang W, Chari R, Shames D, Tang X, MacAulay C, Varella-Garcia M, Vooder T, Wistuba II, Lam S, Brekken R, Toyooka S, Minna J, Lam W, Gazdar A.  Oncogene mutations, copy number gains and mutant allele specific imbalance (MASI) frequently occur together in tumor cells.  PLoS One. 2009 Oct 14;4(10):e7464.
  • Yee J, Sadar M, Sin D, Kyzyk M, Xing L, Rattenbury J, McWilliams A, Man SFP, Lam S. Connective tissue-activating peptide III: a novel blood biomarker for early lung cancer detection.  J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jun 10;27(17):2787-92. Epub 2009 May 4.
  • Yuan R, Hogg J, Pare P, Sin D, Wong J, Nakano Y, McWilliams A, Lam S, Coxson H.  Prediction of the rate of decline in FEV1 in smokers using quantitative computed tomography.  Thorax. 2009 Nov;64(11):944-9. [Epub 2009 Sep 3].
  • Campbell J, Lockwood W, Buys T, Chari R, Coe B, Lam S, Lam W.  Integrative Genomic and Gene Expression Analysis of Chromosome 7 Identified Novel Oncogene Loci in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.  Genome. 2008 Dec;51(12):1032-1039.
  • Chen J, Lam S, Pilon A, McWilliams A, Macaulay C, Szabo E.  Higher Levels of the anti-inflammatory Protein CC10 are Associated with Improvement in Bronchial Dysplasia and Sputum Cytometric Assessment in Individuals at High Risk for Lung Cancer.  Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Mar 1;14(5):1590-1597.
  • Chen J, Lam S, Pilon A, McWilliams A, MacAulay C, Szabo E.  Higher Levels of the anti-inflammatory Protein CC10 are Associated with Improvement in Bronchial Dysplasia and Sputum Cytometric assessment in Individuals at high Risk for Lung Cancer.  Clin Cancer Research 2008 Mar 1:14(5);1590-1597.
  • Coxson H, Quiney B, Sin D, Xing L, McWilliams A, Mayo J, Lam S.  Airway Wall Thickness Assessed using Computed tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography.  Am J resp Crit Care Med.  2008 Jun 1;177(11):1201-1206. Epub 2008 Feb 28.
  • Godoy M, Cooperberg P, Maizlin Z, et al.  Detection Sensitivity of a Commercial Lung Nodule CAD System in a Series of Pathologically Proven Lung Cancers. J Thor Imaging. 2008 Feb;23(1):1-6.
  • Jonsson S, Varella-Garcia M, Miller Y, et al.  Chromosomal Aneusomy in Bronchial High Grade Lesions is Associated with Invasive Lung Cancer.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med.  2008 Feb 1;177(3):342-347 [Epub 2007 Nov 7].
  • Lam S, Standish B, Baldwin C, et al.  In vivo Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Preinvasive Bronchial Lesions.  Clin Cancer Res.  2008 Apr 1;14(7):2006-2011.
  • Lee E, Chari R, Lam A, et al.  Disruption of the non-canonical Wnt pathway in lung squamous cell carcinoma.  Clinical Medicine:  Oncology. 2009 ( In press).
  • Short M, Lam S, McWilliams A, Zhao J, Lui H, Zeng H.  Development and Preliminary Results of an Endoscopic Raman Probe for Potential in vivo Diagnosis of Lung Cancers.  Opt Lett. 2008 apr 1;33(7):711-713.
  • Sin D, Man S, McWilliams A, Lam S.  Surfactant Protein D and Bronchial Dysplasia in Smokers at High Risk of Lung Cancer.  Chest. 2008 Sep;134(3):582-588.
  • Zeng H, Fawzy Y, Short M, et al.  Combining field imaging endoscopy with point analysis spectroscopy for improving early lung cancer detection.  Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:1849-50.
  • Buys T, Chari R, Lee E, Zhang M, MacAulay C, Lam S, Lam W, Ling V.  Genetic Changes in the Evolution of Multidrug Resistance for cultured Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.  Genes Chromosomes Cancer.  2007 Dec;46(12):1069-1079.
  • Chari R, Lonergan K, Ng R, MacAulay C, Lam W, Lam S.  Effect of Active Smoking on the Human Bronchial Epithelium Transcriptome.  BMC Genomics.  2007 Aug 29;8:297.
  • Chen J, Lam S, Pilon A, McWilliams A, Melby J, Szabo E.  The Association Between the Anti-inflammatory Protein CC10 and Smoking Status Among Participants in a Chemoprevention Trial.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.  2007 mar;16(3):577-583.
  • Ho M, Ng A, Lam S, Hung J.  Side Population in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines and Tumors is Enriched with Stem-like Cancer Cells.  Cancer res.  2007 May 15;67(10):4827-4833.
  • Jonsson S, Varella-Garcia M, Miller Y, et al.  Chromosomal Aneusomy in Bronchial High Grade Lesions is Associated with Invasive Lung Cancer.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med.  2007 Nov 7 [Epub ahead of print].
  • Kelloff G, Sullivan D, Baker H, et al.  Workshop in Imaging Science Development for Cancer Prevention and Preemption.  Cancer Biomark.  2007;3(1):1-33.
  • Yuan R, Mayo J, Hogg J, Pare P, McWilliams A, Lam S, Coxson H.  The Effects of Radiation Dose and Computed Tomography Manufacturer on Measurements of Lung Densitometry. Chest. August 2007;132:617-623. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Coe BP, Lee EHL, Chi B, Girard L, Minna JD, Gazdar AF, Lam S, MacAulay C, Lam WL.  (2006).  Tiling genomic array profiling of small cell lung cancer cell lines identifies highly frequent copy number gains of MAD1L1.  Genes Chromosomes Cancer 45: 11-19.
  • Coe BP, Lockwood WW, Girard L, Chari R, MacAulay C, Lam S, Gazdar AF, Minna JD, Lam WL.  Differential Disruption of Cell Cycle Pathways in Small Cell and Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.  British Journal of Cancer.  2006; 94(12): 1927-1935.
  • Coe, B. P., Lockwood, W.W., Girard, L., chari, R., MacAulay, C., Lam, S., Gazdar, A.F., Minna, J.D., Lam, W. L.  Differential Regulation of Cell Cycle Pathways in Small Cell and Non-Small Cell Lung cancer.  British Journal of Cancer 94:1927-1935. 2006.
  • Cutz J.C., Guan J, Bayani J., Yoshimoto M., Xue H., Sutcliffe M., English J., Flint J., LeRiche J., Yee J., Squire J. A., Gout P. W., Lam S. and Wang YZ. Establishment in SCID Mice of Subrenal Capsule Xenografts and Transplantable Tumour Lines from a Variety of Primary Human Lung Cancers: Potential Models for Studying Tumour Progression-Related Changes. Clinical Cancer Research.  July 2006 12(13):  4043-4054.
  • Garnis C, Lockwood WW, Vucic E, Ge Y, Girard L, Minna JD, Gazdar AF, Lam S, MacAulay C, Lam WL. (2006) Comparing canonical non-small cell lung squamous and adenocarcinoma model genomes.  International Journal of Cancer.  118: 1556-1564.
  • Lam S, McWilliams A, Leriche J, MacAulay C, Wattenburg L, Szabo E.  A Phase I Study of Myo-inositol for Lung Cancer Chemoprevention.  Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention.  August 2006; 15(8): 1526-1531.
  • Lonergan, K., Chari, R., deLeeuw, R., Shadeo, A., Chi, B., Tsao, MS., Jones, S., Marra, M., Ling, V., Ng, R., MacAulay, M., Lam, S., Lam, W.  Identification of novel lung genes in bronchial epithelium by serial analysis of gene expression.  Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol.  2006 Dec; Vol 35 (6), 651-61.
  • Malhotra S, Lam S, Man Paul SF, Gan Wen Qi, Sin Don D. The Relationship Between STAGE 1 AND 2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer And Lung Function In Men and Women BMC Pulm Med 2006 Feb 1: 6:2.
  • McWilliams AM, Mayo JR, Ahn MI, MacDonald SLS, Lam S. Lung Cancer Screening Using Multi-Slice Thing-Section Computed Tomography and Autofluorescence Bronchoscopy. Journal of Thoracic Oncology 2006. 1(1):61-68.
  • Shaipanich T, McWilliams A, Lam S.  Early Detection and Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer.  Respirology.  July 2006; 11(4): 366-372.
  • Sin DD, Man Paul SF, McWilliams A, Lam S. Progression of Airway Dysplasia and C-reactive Protein in Smokers at High Risk of Lung Cancer. Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2006. Mar 1; 173(5): 535-9. Epub 2005.

Awards & Recognition